Apr 23

National Income MEANING

Meaning :
The net value of goods and services produced in the country
during a year including the net earned foreign income.

Definition :
According to the National income Committee (1949), ” A national income
estimate measures the volume of commodities and services turned out
during a given period counted without duplication.”

** A total of national income measures the flow of GOODS AND SERVICES
in economy.

** National income is a FLOW NOT A STOCK.

NATIONAL WEALTH : Measures the stock of commodities held by the nationals of a country
at a point of time

NATIONAL INCOME : Measures the PRODUCTIVE power of an economy in a given
period to turn out goods and services for final consumption.

Mar 17

Market Structure

Market Structure

  • Meaning of Market:

Market is any medium where buyer and seller can interact and buy or sell ;agree to buy or sell the goods/services or set of goods/services at different price offered.

  • Not necessary that market should be a place because online shopping is also done in market


Meaning of Market Structure:

  •  characteristics of a market that influence the behavior and results of the firms working in that market is Market Structure.


Types of Market Structure:

  • Perfect competition: the efficient market where goods are produced using the most efficient techniques and the least amount of factors. This market is considered to be unrealistic but it is nevertheless of special interest for hypothetical and theoretical reasons.
  • Imperfect competition, which includes all situations that differ from perfect competition. Sellers and buyers can influence in the determination of the price of goods, leading to efficiency losses. Imperfect competition includes market structures such as:
  • Monopoly: it represents the opposite of perfect competition. This market is composed of a sole seller who will therefore have full power to set prices.
  • Oligopoly: in this case, products are offered by a series of firms. However, the number of sellers is not large enough to guarantee perfect competition prices. These markets are usually studied by analyzing duopolies, since these are easier to model and the main conclusions can be extrapolated to oligopolies.
  • Monopolistic competition: this market is formed by a high number of firms which produce a similar good that can be seen as unique due to differentiation, that will allow prices to be held up higher than marginal costs.  In other words, each producer will be considered as a monopoly thanks to differentiation, but the whole market s considered as competitive because the degree of differentiation is not enough to undermine the possibility of substitution effects.
  • Monopsony: it’s similar to a monopoly, but in this case there are many firms selling products, but only one buyer, the monopsonist, who will have full power when negotiating prices.
  • Oligopsony: similar to oligopolies, but with buyers. Sellers will have to deal with the increased negotiating power of the only few buyers in the market, the oligopsonists
Nov 07

Constitution of India-Practice Paper

                                                                              CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

  1. “Article 14 of the constitution of India forbids class legislation, but does not forbid classification.” Explain the rules with respect to permissible classification as evolved by the supreme court of India.
  2. Write short notes on the following: Doctrine of pith and substance.
  3. Write a note on preventive detention.
  4. Differentiate between the ‘powers of the supreme court under article 32’ and powers of High court under article 226 of the constitution of India.
  5. Examine the writ jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
  6. Explain the ‘doctrine of severability’
  7. Article 14 of the constitution of India forbids class legislation but does not forbid classification. Discuss.
  8. “Imposition of President’s Rule in the states under article 356 of the constitution is a controversial matter.” Analyse the constitutional position.
  9. Explain the expression ‘procedure established by law’ in Article 21 of the constitution of India. Refer to case law.
  10. Critically examine the provisions of the constitution of India relating to the freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse.
  11. How far is it correct to state that the Indian constitution is federal in character but with unitary features?
  12. Examine the amendability of the fundamental rights.
  13. How far can a law enacted to implement the directive principles of state policy claim immunity from fundamental rights? Refer in this context to judicial decisions and constitutional amendments.
  14. Explain the scope of right to protection of life and personal liberty as guaranteed in article 21 of the constitution of India.
  15. To what extent can the state restrict the fundamental right of a citizen to practice any profession?
  16. Describe the power of the president of India to promulgate ordinances.
  17. Discuss the principle of equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the laws’ under the constitution of India.
  18. Discuss the power of the governor to promulgate ordinances during recess of legislature.
  19. “India is a secular state.” Explain the provision of the constitution of India in this regard. Discuss the right to freedom to profess and propagate a religion and limitations thereto.
  20. What is writ of habeas corpus? Which courts can issue this writ? Against whom can it be issued? When can it be issued?
  21. Define the concept of the ‘State’ with respect to fundamental rights enshrined in the constitution of India.
  22. “Detection of a person without trial being draconian in nature,” state the basic safeguards provided by the constitution of India against any law providing for preventive detention.
  23. Akshay was denied public employment on the ground of his place of birth. Discuss the remedy available to Akshay under the provisions of the constitution of India.
  24. Enumerate fundamental duties imposed on citizens of India under the constitution.
  25. Discuss with reference to case law the right to protection of life and personal liberty as guaranteed by the constitution of India.
  26. Explain the doctrine of eclipse.
  27. Explain the powers of the parliament to make laws on the state list.
  28. Discuss the following under the Constitution of Indiai
  •    fundamental duties.
  •    Safeguards in a law providing for prevention detection.
  •    Writ of habeas corpus.
  •   Ordinance making powers of the president of India
  • “The constitution of India is federal in nature with a strong centralizing tendency.” Discuss.
  1. “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law”. Discuss.
  2. Explain the doctrine of severability.
  3. Discuss the legislative powers of the parliament and State Assemblies with respect to different subjects of legislation as provided under the constitution of India.
  4.  Discuss the position of fundamental rights vis-à-vis directive principles of state policy.
  5. What is ‘delegated legislation’? What are the limits under which powers of delegated legislation may be exercised?
  6. Explain the writ of mandamus as an extra-ordinary constitutional remedy.
  7. Discuss the powers of the governors relating to issuance of ordinances.
  8. Mention the provision relating to freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse in the constitution of India.
  9. “None of the fundamental rights to freedom is absolute”. Comment and explain the reasonable restrictions which can be imposed on the freedom of speech and expressions.
  10. On what grounds and against whom can be writ of certiorari be issued?
  11. Discuss in brief the rule of colourable legislation.
  12. “Article 14 of the constitution of India forbids class legislation, but does not forbid classification.” Discuss.
  13. When can a writ of quo warranto be issued?
  14. Preferential treatment to certain persons belonging to backward classes in the form of reservation in education and jabs as provided in Article 15(4) and 16(4) of the constitution of India is a mean of ensuring the canon of equality enshrined in the preamble of the constitution of India. Evaluate the statement.
  15. What are the fundamental duties imposed on the citizens of India?
  16. “The constitution of India is basically federal with certain unitary features”. Discuss.
  17. Discuss briefly whether the law made by the parliament with respect to a subject included in the state list and made applicable to the state is valid.
  18. Discuss the relationship between ‘Fundamental Rights’ and ‘Directive Principles of the State Policy’.
  19. Comment on the following:

(i)                 The preamble to the constitution of India sets out the aims and aspirations  of the people of India.

  1. “Article 21 of the constitution of india confers on every persons the fundamental               right to life and personal liberty.” Explain it with the help of decided cases.
  2. Discuss the writ of habeas corpus.
  3. “Article 21 of the constitution of India has been so transformed by judiciary that it now encompasses all conceivable rights within its ambit.” Discuss.
  4. On what grounds and against whom the writ of mandamus can be issued?
  5. Explain of the following :

(i)                 Doctrine of waiver of rights.

  1. Attempt of the following :

(i)                 What is ‘Delegated legislation’? What purposes does it serve ?

  1. A foreign national applied for permission to establish an industry for manufacturing shoes in Delhi. The permission was refused by the competent authority. The foreign national intends to file a writ petition challenging the order of refusal on the ground that in India persons are guaranteed fundamental freedom of trade. Will he  succeed?
  2. An organization of a business community staged processions, demonstration and agitations before the secretarial of the state government on busy roads to press for their demands. These caused traffic jams. The State Government imposed a ban on demonstrations and marches on busy roads on working days. The organization alleged that the was an infringement of the fundamental right of freedom as guaranteed under the constitution of India and filed a petition in the high court. Decide.
  3. Ashish was dismissed from the service. He filed a writ petition in the high court for quashing the order of dismissal on the ground that he was not given reasonable opportunity to refute the allegations made against him and that the action taken against him was mala fide. The petition was dismissed on merit. Thereafter, he instituted a suit in the court of civil judge in which he challenged the order of dismissal on the grounds inter alia that he had been appointed by the Inspector General of police and that the Deputy Inspector General of Police is not competent to dismiss him by virtue of Article 311(1) of the constitution of India. Decide.
  4. An organization of some persons belonging to a particular community sat on a dharna near Jantar Mandir in New Delhi and later on moved towards Parliament house raising slogans against the Government to press for their demands. This led to traffic jam. The government had imposed a ban on demonstrations near and at the Parliament house. The organization filed a petition in high court against the ban, pleading infringement of their fundamental right of freedom. Will the petition be admitted ? give reasons.